Brain function in adults as young as 35 may decline as their heart disease risk factors increase, according to a Dutch study.
“Young adults may think the consequences of smoking or being overweight are years down the road, but they arent,” Hanneke Joosten, MD, the study’s co-lead author and a nephrology fellow at the University Medical Center in Groningen, the Netherlands, said in a news release.
“Most people know the negative effects of heart risk factors such as heart attack, stroke and renal impairment, but they do not realize it affects cognitive health. Whats bad for the heart is also bad for the brain.”
The study — published May 2 on the website of Stroke, an American Heart Association journal — included 3,778 participants, ages 35 to 82. The participants underwent cognitive function tests that measure the ability to plan and reason and to initiate and switch tasks. A separate test gauged memory function. The Framingham Risk Score determined their risk of cardiovascular events in the next 10 years.
• Participants with the most heart disease risks performed 50% worse on cognitive tests than participants with the lowest risk profile.
• The overall Framingham Risk Score, age, diabetes, bad cholesterol and smoking were negatively linked to poor cognitive scores.
• Compared to nonsmoking participants, those who smoked one to 15 cigarettes daily had a decrease in cognitive score of 2.41 points and those who smoked more than 16 cigarettes a day had a decrease of 3.43 points. The memory scores had a similar association.
• Two risk factors, smoking and diabetes, were strong determinants of cognitive function. “There clearly is a dose response among smokers, with heavy smokers having a lower cognitive function than light or nonsmokers,” Joosten said. “It is likely that smoking cessation has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.”
Health professionals should be aware of cognitive function in patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, Joosten said. Cardiovascular risk factors, especially those that are modifiable such as smoking and obesity, need ongoing attention from the medical profession, government and food industry, she said. “Smoking cessation programs might not only prevent cancer, stroke and cardiovascular events, but also cognitive damage.”
Read the study abstract: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2013/05/02/STROKEAHA.111.000496.abstract.