Tobacco control in the U.S. since 1964 has been associated with the avoidance of an estimated 8 million premature smoking-attributable deaths, according to a study.
The beneficiaries of these avoided early deaths have gained, on average, nearly two decades of life, according to the study, which was published in the Jan. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The authors added that smoking-attributable death occurred in approximately 17.7 million people during this time period, and efforts must continue to reduce the effect of smoking on the nations death toll.
January 2014 marks the 50th anniversary of the first surgeon generals report on smoking and health, the authors wrote in background information for the article. The report inaugurated efforts to reduce cigarette smoking and its effects on health. Those efforts by governments, voluntary organizations, and the private sector education on smokings dangers, increases in cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, media campaigns, marketing and sales restrictions, lawsuits and cessation treatment programs have comprised the nations tobacco control efforts.
Theodore R. Holford, PhD, of the Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, Conn., and colleagues conducted a study to model reductions in smoking-related mortality associated with implementation of tobacco control since 1964. Smoking histories for individual birth cohorts that actually occurred and under likely scenarios had tobacco control never emerged were estimated. National mortality rates and mortality rate ratio estimates from analytical studies of the effect of smoking on mortality yielded death rates by smoking status. Actual smoking-related mortality from 1964 through 2012 was compared with estimated mortality under no tobacco control. National Health Interview Surveys yielded cigarette smoking histories for the U.S. adult population in 1964-2012.
The model estimated that a total of 17.7 million smoking-attributable deaths occurred between 1964 and 2012. Overall, an estimated reduction of 8 million premature smoking-attributable deaths (or lives saved) were associated with tobacco control during this time period (5.3 million men and 2.7 million women). More than half of these, 4.4 million, occurred before age 65. The estimated number of lives saved each year has increased steadily over time.
From 1964-2012, it is estimated that a gain of 157 million years of life was associated with tobacco control, 111 million for men and 46 million for women. This suggests that individuals who avoided a premature smoking-related death gained 19.6 years of life on average (157 million years divided by 8 million lives saved), the authors wrote.
For the population as a whole, life expectancy for men at age 40 has increased 7.8 years. Without tobacco control, the estimated increase would have been 5.5 years. Hence, 2.3 years or 30% of improved life expectancy for men is projected to be associated with tobacco control, the authors wrote. In women, life expectancy at age 40 increased 5.4 years, but without tobacco control, it would have been projected to increase by only 3.8 years. Tobacco control appears to be associated with 1.6 years of the improvement in life expectancy for women, or 29% of the gain.
The authors concluded: Tobacco control has made a unique and substantial contribution to public health over the past half century. This study provides a quantitative perspective to the magnitude of that contribution.
Despite the success of tobacco control efforts in reducing premature deaths in the United States, smoking remains a significant public health problem. Today, a half-century after the surgeon generals first pronouncement on the toll that smoking exacts from U.S. society, nearly a fifth of U.S. adults continue to smoke, and smoking continues to claim hundreds of thousands of lives annually. No other behavior comes close to contributing so heavily to the nations mortality burden. Tobacco control has been a great public health success story but requires continued efforts to eliminate tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.