Informed consent for chemotherapy is an essential prerequisite to the administration of any oral or parenteral chemotherapeutic agent in any healthcare setting. Obtaining the patients informed consent for treatment with antineoplastic agents is the oncologists responsibility, and all the information the oncologist and patient share and agree to in this process is documented in the patients medical record. The oncology nurses role in patients informed consent also is fundamental.
Initially, an RN must be certain that the informed consent document is complete and accessible in the patients record and that both the patient, or his or her legal representative, and the oncologist have signed and dated the document. The nurse also may need to clarify points the oncologist may or may not have emphasized when obtaining informed consent for chemotherapy. For example, the nurse may need to discuss follow-up appointments and lab tests, which should be noted on the informed consent form, to avoid any undue anxiety about treatment and what happens after treatment is completed.
If a patient has concerns about treatment, the nurse, as an advocate, must bring those concerns to the oncologists attention for a resolution. Nurses will need to document any issues raised and resolved in the patients record. If the patient seems hesitant to begin chemotherapy, or if he or she clearly decides not to begin chemotherapy, the informed consent previously obtained is null and void. The nurse must contact the oncologist about the patients retraction of consent and document the retraction, that the oncologist was informed, and any resolutions or changes to a patients decision about discontinuing chemotherapy treatment.
Before initiating chemotherapy, the nurse needs to confirm the chemotherapy order is in place and meets prescribing standards. No verbal orders should be allowed, except when it is necessary to hold or stop chemotherapy. All orders must be documented in the patient record and include such information as the patients full name (and second patient identifier); dosage; allergies; route and rate of administration; and the chemotherapeutic agent(s) to be administered in the regimen and their respective dosing parameters, time limitations for the treatment, and supportive care treatment, such as hydration and premedication.
Another important duty for the oncology nurse before treatment begins is patient and family education concerning the chemotherapeutic regimen. The nurse should discuss issues such as food and other drug interactions with the antineoplastic agent(s), how the treatment plan will be adjusted if a treatment or dose is missed, supportive measures, and patient and family education if they will be managing the treatment at home.
The nurses role in the informed consent process for chemotherapy is an important and essential one. With your guidance, the patients right of providing informed permission to undergo this particular treatment may be fully realized.
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